Sometimes, I feel as if I have been doing homework my entire life. As a child growing up, I moved from worksheets, dioramas and book reports to essays, major projects and term papers. When I began teaching, I had lessons to prepare and my students’ homework became my homework for grading. (And, on occasion, it was quite obvious that I was putting a bit more effort into MY homework than they put into theirs!) As my children reached school age, “Mom’s rules” on homework included: homework comes first, don’t wait until the last minute on a project, etc. But somehow their homework still bled over into my life…
So, how important is this icon of education? Is homework helpful or harmful? Is it something that, as many students claim, just eats up their time and energy for no real purpose? Do we, as educators, need new practices that move away from homework or are we simply afraid to change, stuck on those famous eight words, “But, we’ve never done it that way before…”?
In support of the view of homework as helpful, many educators stress that specifically aligning homework to the learning task is part of the strategy for building understanding. The website Focus on Effectiveness cites several studies showing that in elementary school, homework helps build learning and study habits (Cooper, 1989; Cooper, Lindsay, Nye, & Greathouse, 1998; Gorges & Elliot, 1999). Also noted is the point that 30 minutes of daily homework in high school can increase a student’s GPA up to half a point (Keith 1992). Many students need time and experience to develop the study habits that support learning, and homework can provide that as well as the ability to cope with mistakes and difficulty (Bempechat, 2004). Those teachers who take the time to add instructive comments to their feedback to homework get the greatest return on their efforts in after-school work. (Walberg, 1999).
But what about the students who are doing it wrong and then have to “unlearn” incorrect information? When considering the view that homework is harmful, author and speaker Alfie Kohn states that there is no real evidence showing homework to be beneficial to elementary students. In an EdWeek article, he writes that he found no correlation between homework and improved standardized assessment scores. Regarding secondary students, Kohn said that there is a slight correlation between homework and improved test scores and grades but there is no evidence that the improvement is because of homework rather than other activities. Stating that there is no proof that homework benefits students in other ways such as good study habits, independence or self discipline, Kohn could find no disadvantage to reducing or even eliminating homework altogether but finds the homework trend continues to grow.
So, what is the answer – is homework helpful or harmful? Do we continue current practices or throw homework out altogether?
A balanced perspective most likely is the best response. Time spent on homework should align with the student’s age – a short time spent in elementary school, up to 90 minutes for middle school or junior high aged students and between 1½ and 2 ½ hours per night (not per subject!) in high school (Harris, 2006). Another suggestion is to multiply the student’s grade by ten to determine the appropriate number of minutes of homework per night (example – a fifth grader should have no more than 50 minutes of homework per night). If we want the best results, we’ll keep homework time within these time ranges with allowances made for individual needs of students and families.
- Remember the main purposes of homework: to build rote memorization and automaticity; to provide time to deepen understanding though elaboration and to increase readiness for new information.
- Assign homework that includes very few concepts so students can learn them on a deeper level (Healy, 1990).
- Match homework to the learning goal for a more focused learning experience.
- Provide appropriate and timely feedback. Students need to know what was correct, what needs to be changed, etc., and they need this information sooner rather than later. Waiting several days or even weeks to provide feedback limits or even eliminates the effectiveness of the assignment.
- Parental involvement should be limited to facilitating the completion of homework – not teaching content or doing the work for a child. Parents who get too involved in an assignment inhibit rather than enhance learning.