Sep 13, 2011 by Cory Armes

Is homework harmful or helpful?

Sometimes, I feel as if I have been doing homework my entire life.  As a child growing up, I moved from worksheets, dioramas and book reports to essays, major projects and term papers.  When I began teaching, I had lessons to prepare and my students’ homework became my homework for grading.  (And, on occasion, it was quite obvious that I was putting a bit more effort into MY homework than they put into theirs!)  As my children reached school age, “Mom’s rules” on homework included:  homework comes first, don’t wait until the last minute on a project, etc.  But somehow their homework still bled over into my life…

So, how important is this icon of education?  Is homework helpful or harmful?  Is it something that, as many students claim, just eats up their time and energy for no real purpose?  Do we, as educators, need new practices that move away from homework or are we simply afraid to change, stuck on those famous eight words, “But, we’ve never done it that way before…”?

In support of the view of homework as helpful, many educators stress that specifically aligning homework to the learning task is part of the strategy for building understanding.  The website Focus on Effectiveness cites several studies showing that in elementary school, homework helps build learning and study habits (Cooper, 1989; Cooper, Lindsay, Nye, & Greathouse, 1998; Gorges & Elliot, 1999).  Also noted is the point that 30 minutes of daily homework in high school can increase a student’s GPA up to half a point (Keith 1992).  Many students need time and experience to develop the study habits that support learning, and homework can provide that as well as the ability to cope with mistakes and difficulty (Bempechat, 2004).  Those teachers who take the time to add instructive comments to their feedback to homework get the greatest return on their efforts in after-school work. (Walberg, 1999).

But what about the students who are doing it wrong and then have to “unlearn” incorrect information?  When considering the view that homework is harmful, author and speaker Alfie Kohn states that there is no real evidence showing homework to be beneficial to elementary students.  In an EdWeek article, he writes that he found no correlation between homework and improved standardized assessment scores.  Regarding secondary students, Kohn said that there is a slight correlation between homework and improved test scores and grades but there is no evidence that the improvement is because of homework rather than other activities.  Stating that there is no proof that homework benefits students in other ways such as good study habits, independence or self discipline, Kohn could find no disadvantage to reducing or even eliminating homework altogether but finds the homework trend continues to grow. 

So, what is the answer – is homework helpful or harmful?  Do we continue current practices or throw homework out altogether? 

A balanced perspective most likely is the best response.  Time spent on homework should align with the student’s age – a short time spent in elementary school, up to 90 minutes for middle school or junior high aged students and between 1½ and 2 ½ hours per night (not per subject!) in high school (Harris, 2006). Another suggestion is to multiply the student’s grade by ten to determine the appropriate number of minutes of homework per night (example – a fifth grader should have no more than 50 minutes of homework per night). If we want the best results, we’ll keep homework time within these time ranges with allowances made for individual needs of students and families. 

Key takeaways:

  1. Remember the main purposes of homework:  to build rote memorization and automaticity; to provide time to deepen understanding though elaboration and to increase readiness for new information.
  2. Assign homework that includes very few concepts so students can learn them on a deeper level (Healy, 1990).
  3. Match homework to the learning goal for a more focused learning experience.
  4. Provide appropriate and timely feedback.  Students need to know what was correct, what needs to be changed, etc., and they need this information sooner rather than later.  Waiting several days or even weeks to provide feedback limits or even eliminates the effectiveness of the assignment.
  5. Parental involvement should be limited to facilitating the completion of homework – not teaching content or doing the work for a child.   Parents who get too involved in an assignment inhibit rather than enhance learning.


Homework and Practice. (n.d.) Retrieved September 7, 2011, from

Cooper, H. (2006).Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? Retrieved September 7, 2011, from

Kohn, A. (2006). The Truth About Homework: Needless Assignments Persist Because of Widespread Misconceptions About Learning. Retrieved September 7, 2011, from

Related Reading:

Students who Struggle in the Mainstream: What their Homework Patterns May Tell You

Building a Foundation for School Readiness for Low Income Children  


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Thank you

Thank you

I think that homework can

I think that homework can helpful because it will help a child learn responsibilities and it can be bad for health at times.

i think homework is a bad

i think homework is a bad thing because its one reason why chidren do not attend school

Homework is good because it

Homework is good because it can review and reflect the things learnt in class

I think Homework is helpful,

I think Homework is helpful, because it let's the teacher now what you are struggling on and what you don't need help with.

I think homework has it's

I think homework has it's disadvantages. If the student does not know what he/she is doing they should go to the teacher for help. Instead if they are doing homework and is still continuing to do it wrong they will keep doing it wrong and keep on that same path. If the student needs help they need to go the teacher. Homework will only hurt that child especially if it's for a grade. Them not knowing the subject/homework will bring their grade down when it' s not the student's fault for not knowing .

home work is helpful and very

home work is helpful and very useful in life, it helps you with responsibility skills, stress, and even good grades..

people should get more

people should get more homework because homework can prepear people for jobs and collage

nice article

nice article

I am doing a speech on

I am doing a speech on homework and personally I believe it sometimes can be helpful but often just annoys the children who are forced to do it. It takes away their chances to believe in fantasy, play games/sport and socialise therefor ruining there childhood.

thanks for sharing this

thanks for sharing this article, nice blog really interesting to read out.

homework is an essential

homework is an essential part of education, allowing students to learn information beyond that which they are taught at school

I think its not helpful

I think its not helpful because it develops inequality among students

i think that kids should not

i think that kids should not have homework it leads to much stress to the child.

Homework is necessary in the

Homework is necessary in the academic life of a child and student. It's advantages outweigh it's disadvantages. However, it has to be in moderation. It's advisable that parents don't get involved in the actual writing but can encourage their children to work on it as soon as possible. We learn a thing by doing it. Teachers should be guided by reason while assigning homework. I'll also suggest it be graded accordingly.

Very well stated, Jude. Thank

Very well stated, Jude. Thank you for taking the time to share your thoughts on this debate with us. As you point out, there is responsibility on the part of the parents, as well as the teachers, to ensure that students can get the most out of their assignments.

homework cause's so much

homework cause's so much stress to kids and takes up so much of there time but yet it helps them learn and understand but still it shouldn't be a really long thing.

Thank you for your comment

Thank you for your comment Holly! Homework in moderation is a reasonable stance in the homework debate.

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