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  • The magnitude of the gain was completely unexpected. We were seeing schools showing double-digit gains in student achievement.

30 years of multilevel research.

We are one of the only educational software companies whose neuroscience research has been and continues to be published in peer reviewed journals.

 

Featured

Rogowsky, B. (2010). The Impact of Fast ForWord® on Sixth Grade Students’ Use of Standard Edited American English. Doctor of Education dissertation, Wilkes University. 

Russo, N.M., Hornickel, H., Nicol, T., Zecker, S., Kraus, N. (2010)  Biological changes in auditory function following training in children with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral and Brain Functions 6(60), 1-8.

Stevens, C., Fanning, J., Coch, D., Sanders, L., & H Neville (2008). Neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention are enhanced by computerized training: Electrophysiological evidence from language-impaired and typically developing children. Brain Research, 1205, 55-69.

Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S.L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(5), 2860-2865.

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Back to Top Back to TopIndependent Reviews

A number of highly respected, independent educational organizations have reviewed the Scientific Learning family of products and found them effective in raising literacy outcomes.

De Anda I. (2000). Glasses for the Ears: Technology provides a critical link to literacy, Multimedia Schools: A Practical Journal of Technology, including Multimedia, CD-ROM, Online, Internet, & Hardware in K-12, 7(2).

National Center on Intensive Intervention. (2013). NCII reviews three studies on the Fast ForWord Language Series with medium to large effect size.

The National Center on Response to Intervention. (2011). NCRTI Reviews the Fast ForWord Language Series.

The Nevada Department of Education and The Leadership and Learning Center (2010, March).  Nevada Department of Education: Fast ForWord is a “High-Gain Program”

Programs and Practices: Fast ForWord (2002). Education Commission of the States.

Schachter J. (1999). Reading Programs that Work: A review of programs for Pre-Kindergarten to 4th grade. Milken Family Foundation.

What Works Clearinghouse. (2013, March). Beginning Reading intervention report: Fast ForWord. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

What Works Clearinghouse. (2010, August). Adolescent Literacy intervention report: Fast ForWord. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

What Works Clearinghouse. (2006, September). English Language Learners intervention report: Fast ForWord Language. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

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Back to Top Back to TopOutcome Studies

Scientists have put the Scientific Learning family of products to the test in carefully-designed outcomes studies, often published in peer review journals.

Adams, M. J. (2006). The promise of automatic speech recognition for fostering literacy growth in children and adults. In M.C. McKenna, L.D. Labbo, R. D. Kieffer, & D. Reinking (Eds.), International Handbook of Literacy and Technology, Volume 2. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence lbaum Associates. (Summary of Impact Study) (Summary of Sensitivity Study)

Bedi, G.C., Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Byma, G., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1995). Efficacy of temporal-based training for receptive language and auditory discrimination deficits in language-learning impaired children: A follow-up study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Supplement, April, p.55.

Deutsch, G. K., Miller, S. L., Merzenich, M. M., & Tallal, P. (1999). Improvements in auditory working memory after training of children with language impairments. Paper presented at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society.

Dronkers, N. F, Husted, D.A., Deutsch, G., Tayler, M.K., Saunders, G., & Merzenich, M.M. (1999). Lesion site as a predictor of improvement after "Fast ForWord" treatment in adult aphasic patients. Brain & Language, 69, 450-452.

Forrest, M., Spitko, T. (2004, April). Implementation of the Fast ForWord family of programs in Pottstown School District. Paper presented to the Pottstown School District Board, Pottstown, PA.

Friel-Patti, S., DesBarres, K., & Thibodeau, L. (2001). Case studies of children using Fast ForWord. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 203-215.

Friel-Patti, S., Loeb, D. F., & Gillam, R. B. (2001). Looking ahead: An introduction to five exploratory studies of Fast ForWord. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 195-202.

Gaab, N., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Deutsch, G.K., Tallal, P., & Temple, E. (2007). Neural correlates of rapid auditory processing are disrupted in children with developmental dyslexia and ameliorated with training: An fMRI study. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 25, 295-310.

Gillam, R. B., Crofford, J. A., Gale, M. A., & Hoffman, L. M. (2001). Language change following computer-assisted language instruction with Fast ForWord or Laureate Learning Systems software. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 231-247.

Gillam, R. B., Loeb, D. F., & Friel-Patti, S. (2001). Looking back: A summary of five exploratory studies on Fast ForWord. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 269-273.

Gillam, R.B., Frome Loeb, D., Hoffman, L.M., Bohman, T., Champlin, C.A., & Thibodeau, L. (2008) The Efficacy of Fast ForWord Language Intervention in School-Age Children With Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 97-119.

Heim, S., Keil, A., Choudhury, N., Thomas Friedman, J. & Benasich, A. (2013). Early gamma oscillations during rapid auditory processing in children with a language-learning impairment: Changes in neural mass activity after training. Neuropschologia, 51, 990-1001.

Hook, P. E., Macaruso, P., & Jones, S. (2001). Efficacy of Fast ForWord training on facilitating acquisition of reading skills by children with reading difficulties--a longitudinal study. Annals of Dyslexia, 51, 75-96.

Jenkins, W. M. (1998). A computer based training procedure for improvement of auditory perceptual skills and language function. Paper presented at the 2emes Journees Scientifiques de l'Ecole d'Orthophonie de Lyon.

Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M., Jacobson, T., Miller, S. L., Schreiner, C., & Tallal, P. (1995). raining exercises improve temporal processing abilities in language-based learning disabled children (LLDs): Use-dependent reorganization. Paper presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Johnstone, P., Harmon, L., Buehler, V., Plyler, E., Pritt, E., & Alworth, L. (2008, October).  The effect of computer based auditory training on APD test scores.   Paper presented at the APD Conference: 30 Years of Progress in Cincinnati, OH.

Kitzes, A. J., Miller, S. L., & Deutsch, G. K. (1999). The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and language learning impairment (LLI). Paper presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Washington DC.

Krishnamurti, S., Forrester, J., Rutledge, C., & Holmes, G.W. (2013). A case study of the changes in the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response associated with auditory training in children with auditory processing disorders. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinoloaryngology, 77, 594-604.

Loeb, D. F., Stoke, C., & Fey, M. E. (2001). Language changes associated with Fast ForWord-language: Evidence from case studies. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 216-230.

Marler, J. A., Champlin, C. A., & Gillam, R. B. (2001). Backward and simultaneous masking measured in children with language-learning impairments who received intervention with Fast ForWord or Laureate Learning Systems software. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 258-268.

Merzenich, M. M., Jenkins, W. M., Johnston, P., Schreiner, C., Miller, S. L., & Tallal, P. (1996). Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science, 271(5245), 77-81.

Merzenich, M. M., Miller, S., Jenkins, W. M., Saunders, G., Protopapas, A., Peterson, B., & Tallal, P. (1998). Amelioration of the acoustic and speech reception deficits underlying language-based learning impairments. In C. von Euler, I. Lundberg, & R. Llinas (Eds.), Basic mechanisms in cognition and language (pp. 143-172). New York: Elsevier.

Merzenich, M. M., Saunders, G., Jenkins, W. M., Miller, S., Peterson, B., & Tallal, P. (1999). Pervasive developmental disorders: Listening training and language abilities. In S. H. Broman & J. M. Fletcher (Eds.), The changing nervous system: Neurobehavioral consequences of early brain disorders (pp. 365-385). New York: Oxford University Press.

Miller, S. L., Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M., & Tallal, P. (1995). Modification of auditory temporal processing thresholds in language-based learning disabled children. Paper presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Miller, S. L., Linn, N., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1999). Acoustically modified speech and language training: A relationship between auditory word discrimination training and measures of language outcomes. Reeducation Orthophonique, 197, 159-182.

Miller, S. L., Merzenich, M. M., Tallal, P., DeVivo, K., Linn, N., Pycha, A., Peterson, B. E., & Jenkins, W. M. (1999). Fast ForWord training in children with low reading performance. Nederlandse Vereniging voor Logopedie en Foniatrie: 1999 Jaarcongres Auditieve Vaardigheden en Spraak-taal. (Proceedings of the 1999 Netherlands Speech-Language Association Annual Meeting).

Miller, S., DeVivo, K., LaRossa, K., Pycha, A., Peterson, B. E., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1998). Acoustically modified speech and language training reduces risk for academic difficulties. Paper presented at the Society For Neuroscience, Los Angeles, CA.

Miller, S., Merzenich, M. M., Saunders, G., Jenkins, W. M., & Tallal, P. (1997, October 26). Improvements in language abilities with training of children with both attentional and language impairments. Paper presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Miller, S., Merzenich, M.M., Saunders, G. H., Jenkins, W. M., Tallal, P. (1997). Improvements in language abilities with training of children with both attentional and language impairments. Soc Neurosci Abstr, 23, 490.

Miller, S., & Tallal, P. (1996). Acoustically modified speech training studies: Implications for dyslexia? Perspectives: Proceeding of the Orton Dyslexia Society, 22, 8-9.

Morlet, T., Norman, M., Ray, B., Berlin, C.I. (2003). Fast ForWord: Its scientific basis and treatment effects on the human efferent auditory system. In C. I. Berlin & T. G. Weyland (Eds.),The brain and sensory plasticity: Language acquisition and hearing (pp. 129-148). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.

Nagarajan, S. S., Wang, X., Merzenich, M. M., Schreiner, C. E., Jenkins, W. M., Johnston, P. A., Miller, S. L., Byma, G., & Tallal, P. (1995). Modified speech for training language-based learning disabled children (LLDs). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Rogowsky, B. (2010). The Impact of Fast ForWord® on Sixth Grade Students’ Use of Standard Edited American English. Doctor of Education dissertation, Wilkes University. 

Rogowsky, B.A., Papamichalis, P. Villa, L., Heim, S., & Tallal, P. (2013). Neuroplasticity-based cognitive and linguistic skills training improves reading and writing skills in college students. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(137)1 – 11.

Roy, D. Dutta (2008). A Study Conducted in India to Assess Validity of Fast ForWord Language Gateway Edition. MAPS for Learning: Research Reports, 12(1): 1-63.

Russo, N.M., Hornickel, H., Nicol, T., Zecker, S., Kraus, N. (2010)  Biological changes in auditory function following training in children with autism spectrum disorders.  Behavioral and Brain Functions 6(60), 1-8.

Schopmeyer, B., Mellon, N., Dobaj, H., Grant, G., & Niparko, J. K. (2000). Use of Fast ForWord to enhance language development in children with cochlear implants. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl, 185, 95-8.

Schultz Center for Teaching & Leadership (2009). Research Brief: Fast ForWord Longitudinal Impact Study. Jacksonville, FL: Author.

Scientific Learning Corporation. (1999). National field trial results: Results of Fast ForWord training for children with language and reading problems. Berkeley, CA: Scientific Learning Corporation.

Scientific Learning Corporation. (2003). Scientifically based reading research and the Fast ForWord Products: Research implication for effective language and reading intervention, MAPS for Learning: Research Report (Vol. 7, No. 1: 1-7).

Scientific Learning Corporation. (2011). In Response to a Meta-Analysis by Strong et al., Scientific Learning: Research Reports, 15(3): 1-8.

Stevens, C., Fanning, J., Coch, D., Sanders, L., & H Neville (2008). Neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention are enhanced by computerized training: Electrophysiological evidence from language-impaired and typically developing children. Brain Research, 1205, 55-69.

Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., Miller, S., & Jenkins, W. (1998). Language learning impairments: Integrating basic science, technology, and remediation. Experimental Brain Research, 123(1-2), 210-219.

Tallal, P., Merzenich, M., Jenkins, W. M., Miller, S., & Peterson, B. (1997, November 21). Fast ForWord language training program for children with language & learning problems: Results from a national field study by 35 independent facilities. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Boston, MA.

Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Bedi, G., Byma, G., Wang, X., Nagarajan, S. S., Schreiner, C., Jenkins, W. M., & Merzenich, M. M. (1998). Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. In M. E. Hertzig & E. A. Farber (Eds.),Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development: 1997 (pp. 193-200). NY: Brunner-Routledge.

Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Bedi, G., Byma, G., Wang, X., Nagarajan, S.S., Schreiner, C., Jenkins, W. M., & Merzenich, M. M. (1996). Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science, 271, 81-84.

Tallal, P., Miller, S., Bedi, G., Byma, G., Jenkins, W. M., Wang, X., Nagarajan, S. S., & Merzenich, M. M. (1995). Training with temporally modified speech results in dramatic improvements in speech perception and language comprehension. Paper presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Tallal, P., Saunders, G. H., Miller, S., Jenkins, W. M., Protopapas, A., & Merzenich, M. M. (1997). Rapid training-driven improvement in language ability in autistic and PDD-NOS children. Soc Neurosci Abstr, 23, 490.

Tallal, P., Saunders, G., Miller, S., Jenkins, W. M., Protopapas, A., & Merzenich, M. M. (1997, October 26). Rapid training-driven improvement in language ability in autistic and other PDD children. Paper presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S.L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(5), 2860-2865.

Temple, E., Poldrack, R. A., Protopapas, A., Nagarajan, S., Salz, T., Tallal, P., Merzenich., M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2000). Distruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI. PNAS, 97(35), 13907-13912.

Thibodeau, L. M., Friel-Patti, S., & Britt, L. (2001). Psychoacoustic performance in children completing Fast ForWord training. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 248-257.

Turner, S., & Pearson, D. W. (1999). Fast ForWord language intervention programs: Four case studies. Tejas -- Texas Journal of Audiology and Speech Pathology, 13(Spring/Summer).

Wilson, P., Wiedemeier, S., & Burns, M. (2004, May). Use of Fast ForWord in Learning Centers. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago, IL.

Woodrum, J, Ed.D. (2012). Improved Academic Achievement: Fast ForWord and the Bulloch County Schools Pilot, an Independent Study. Bulloch County Schools, Statesboro, Georgia.

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Back to Top Back to TopFoundational Research

The Scientific Learning® family of products implements neuroscience-based learning principles derived from decades of scientific research.

Ahissar, M. (2001). Perceptual training: A tool for both modifying the brain and exploring it.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 98(21), 11842-3.

Ahissar, M., Protopapas, A., Reid, M., & Merzenich, M.M. (2000). Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 6832-6837.

Alexander, D. W., & Frost, B. P. (1982). Decelerated synthesized speech as a means of shaping speed of auditory processing of children with delayed language. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 55(3, Pt 1), 783-792.

Bao, S., Chan, V.T., Zhang, L. I., & Merzenich, M. M.(2003). Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S, 100(3), 1405-8.

Bao, S., Chang, E. F., Davis, J. D., Gobeske, K. T., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(34), 10765-75.

Beitel, R.E., Schreiner, C. E., Cheung, S. W., Wang, X., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Reward-dependent plasticity in the primary auditory cortex of adult monkeys trained to discriminate temporally modulated signals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 100(19), 11070-5.

Benasich, A. A., & Tallal, P. (1996). Auditory temporal processing thresholds, habituation, and recognition memory over the 1st year. Infant Behavior & Development, 19(3), 339-357.

Benasich, A. A., & Tallal, P. (2002). Infant discrimination of rapid auditory cues predicts later language impairment. Behavior and Brain Research, 136(1), 31-49.

Benasich, A. A., Curtiss, S., & Tallal, P. (1993). Language, learning, and behavioral disturbances in childhood: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(3), 585-594.

Bishop, D. V. M., Bishop, S. J., Bright, P., James, C., Delaney, T., & Tallal, P. (1999). Different origin of auditory and phonological processing problems in children with language impairment: Evidence from a twin study. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 42(1), 155-168.

Blake, D. T., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Changes of AI receptive fields with sound density.Journal of Neurophysiology, 88(6), 3409-20.

Blake, D. T., Strata, F., Churchland, A. K., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Neural correlates of instrumental learning in primary auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 99(15), 10114-9.

Boets, B., Vandermosten, M., Poelmans, H., Luts, H., Wouters, J., & Ghesquiere, P. (2011). Preschool impairments in auditory processing and speech perception uniquely predict future reading problems. Research in Developmental Disabilities 32: 560-570.

Burns, M. (2003). Fast ForWord Products Open a Child's Window to Language. Autism Asperger's Digest. April-March, 2003.(Condensed version available here.)

Burns, M. (2003). Fast ForWord Products Open a Child's Window to Language. In Zysk, V. (Ed.), The Best of Autism Asperger's Digest: Volume 1. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc. (Condensed version available here.)

Burns, M. S. (1999). Access to reading: The language to literacy link. Paper presented at the Learning Disabilities Association Conference.

Burns, M. S. Incorporating Fast ForWord Reading into a speech and language practice (pp. 1-3). Scientific Learning Corporation.

Chang, E. F., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science, 300(5618), 498-502.

De Martino, S., Espesser, R., Rey, V., & Habib, M. (2001). The &quottemporal processing deficit" hypothesis in dyslexia: New experimental evidence. Brain & Cognition, 46(1-2), 104-108.

Denenberg, V. H. (1999). A critique of Mody, Studdert-Kennedy, and Brady's &quotSpeech perception deficits in poor readers: Auditory processing or phonological coding?&quot. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(5), 379-383.

Eimas, P. D., Miller, J. L., & Jusczyk, P. W. (1987). On infant speech perception and the acquisition of language. In S. Harnad (Ed.), Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition. (pp. 161-195). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Elliott, L. L., & Hammer, M. A. (1988). Longitudinal changes in auditory discrimination in normal children and children with language-learning problems. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 53(4), 467-474.

Farmer, M. E., & Klein, R.(1993). Auditory and visual temporal processing in dyslexic and normal readers. In P. Tallal, A. M. Galaburda, R. R. Llinás, & C. von Euler.(Eds.), Temporal information processing in the nervous system: Special reference to dyslexia and dysphasia(pp. 339-341). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.

Fellbaum, C., Miller, S., Curtiss, S., & Tallal, P. (1995). An auditory processing deficit as a possible source of SLI. In D. McLaughlin & S. McEwen (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th annual Boston University conference on language development (pp. 204-215). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Fiez, J. A., Raichle, M. E., Balota, D. A., Tallal, P., & Petersen, S. E. (1996). PET activation of posterior temporal regions during auditory word presentation and verb generation. Cerebral Cortex, 6(1), 1-10.

Fiez, J. A., Raichle, M. E., Miezin, J. D. E., Petersen, S. E., Tallal, P., & Katz, W. F. (1995). PET studies of auditory and phonological processing: Effects of stimulus characteristics and task demands. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7(3), 357-375.

Flax, J.F., Realpe-Bonilla, T., Hirsch, L., Brzustowicz, L.M., Bartlett, C.W., & Tallal, P. (2003). Specific language impairment in families: Evidence for co-occurrence with reading impairments. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 46, 530-543.

Frumkin, B., & Rapin, I. (1980). Perception of vowels and consonant-vowels of varying duration in language impaired children. Neuropsychologia, 18(4-sup-5), 443-454.

Garabedian, C. E., Jones, S. R., Merzenich, M. M., Dale, A., & Moore, C. I. (2003). Band-pass response properties of rat SI neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90(3), 1379-91.

Gillam, R. B. (1999). Treatment for temporal processing deficits: Computer-assisted language intervention using Fast ForWord(R): Theoretical and empirical considerations for clinical decision-making. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 30(4), 363-370.

Habib, M. (2000). The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: An overview and working hypothesis. Brain, 123(12), 2373-2399.

Habib, M., Espesser, R., Rey, V., Giraud, K., Bruas, P., & Gres, C. (1999). Training dyslexics with acoustically modified speech: Evidence of improved phonological performance. Brain & Cognition, 40(1), 143-146.

Habib, M., Rey, V., Daffaure, V., Camps, R., Espesser, R., Joly-Pottuz, B., & Demonet, J.-F. (2002). Phonological training in children with dyslexia using temporally modified speech: A three-step pilot investigation. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 37(3), 289-308.

Hari, R., & Kiesila, P. (1996). Deficit of temporal auditory processing in dyslexic adults.Neuroscience Letters, 205(2), 138-40.

Hickmott, P. W. & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Local circuit properties underlying cortical reorganization. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88(3), 1288-301.

Houde, J. F., Nagarajan, S. S., Sekihara, K., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Modulation of the auditory cortex during speech: An MEG study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(8), 1125-38.

Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M., & Recanzone, G. (1990). Neocortical representational dynamics in adult primates: Implications for neuropsychology. Neuropsychologia, 28(6), 573-84.

Kilgard, M. P. & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Order-sensitive plasticity in adult primary auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 99(5), 3205-9.

Kilgard, M. P., & Merzenich, M. M. (1998). Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity [see comments]. Science, 279(5357), 1714-8.

Kraus, N., McGee, T., Carrell, T. D., King, C., & et al. (1995). Central auditory system plasticity associated with speech discrimination training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7(1), 25-32.

Lakshminarayanan, K. & Tallal, P (2007). Generalization of non-linguistic auditory perceptual training to syllable discrimination. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 25, 263-272.

Leonard, L. (1997). Children with specific language impairments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lincoln, A. J., Dickstein, P., Courchesne, E., Elmasian, R., & Tallal, P. (1992). Auditory processing abilities in non-retarded adolescents and young adults with developmental receptive language disorder and autism. Brain & Language, 43(4), 613-622.

Linden, J. F., Liu, R.C., Sahani, M., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Spectrotemporal structure of receptive fields in areas AI and AAF of mouse auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90(4), 2660-75.

Liu, R.C., Miller, K. D., Merzenich, M. M., & Schreiner, C. E. (2003). Acoustic variability and distinguishability among mouse ultrasound vocalizations. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 114(6 Pt 1), 3412-22.

McCandliss, B.D., Fiez, J.A., Protopapas, A, Conway, M, & McClelland, J.L. (2002). Success and failure in teaching the [r]-[l] contrast to Japanese adults: Tests of a Hebbian model of plasticity and stabilization in spoken language perception. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 2(2), 89-108.

McClelland, J. L., Thomas, A.G., McCandliss, B. D., & Fiez, J. A. (1999). Understanding failures of learning: Hebbian learning, competition for representational space, and some preliminary experimental data. In J. A. Reggia & D. Glanzman (Eds.), Progress in brain research, volume 121, disorders of brain, behavior and cognition: The neurocomputational perspective (pp. 75-80). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

McKenzie, A. L., Nagarajan, S. S., Roberts, T. P., Merzenich, M. M., & Byl, N. N. (2003). Somatosensory representation of the digits and clinical performance in patients with focal hand dystonia. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(10), 737-49.

Merzenich, M. M. & Jenkins, W. M (1995). Cortical plasticity, learning, and learning dysfunction. In B. Julesz & I. Kovacs, Maturational windows and adult cortical plasticity (pp. 247-272). Santa Fe, NM: Addison-Wesley.

Merzenich, M. M., & DeCharms, R. C. (1996). Neural representations, experience and change. In R. Llinas & P. Churchland (Eds.), The mind-brain continuum (pp. 61-81). Boston: MIT Press.

Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1994). Cortical representation of learned behaviors. In P. Anderson, O. Hvalby, O. Paulsen & B. Hokfelt (Eds.), Memory concepts (pp. 437-453). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Merzenich, M. M., Allard, T., & Jenkins, W. M. (1991). Neural ontogeny of higher brain function; Implications of some recent neurophysiological findings. In O. Franzén & P. Westman (Eds.),Information processing in the somatosensory system (pp. 293-211). London: MacMillan Press.

Merzenich, M. M., Recanzone, G.M., Jenkins, W. M., & Grajski, K. A . (1990). Adaptive mechanisms in cortical networks underlying cortical contributions to learning and nondeclarative memory. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 55, 873-887.

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